Deformation in the Tunnel

  • Convergence
  • Displacements around the excavation
  • Displacement across cracks and joints
  • Differential settlement
  • Heave

Deformation of the Ground Surface and Adjacent Structures

  • Subsurface settlement
  • Settlement of utilities
  • Subsurface lateral deformation
  • Measurement of groundwater levels
  • Measurement of cracks and tilt in buildings

Stress in the Tunnel Support and Liner

  • Measurement of structural stresses
  • Loads in and between liner segments
  • Measurement of loads in rockbolts
  • Measurement of NATM tangential and radial stresses
  • Rotation and tilting of liner segments


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